英语语言 lecturer 珍妮Lewin-Jones tells us how our lives shape the way we speak.
语言从不停滞不前. We need new words to describe 而且 reflect changes in the way we live, 无论是与新技术有关, 不断发展的关系或不同的时尚.
One way to create a new word is to make a blend of two existing words. These are sometimes called ‘portmanteau’ words, joining two halves together. This comes from an old-fashioned kind of suitcase in two compartments called a ‘portmanteau’ (it’s a word English borrowed from French). The writer Lewis Carroll used the term in ‘Through the Looking Glass’ (the sequel to ‘Alice’s Adventures in Wonderl而且’). He was very fond of making up portmanteaus such as slithy (lithe + slimy) 而且 chortle (chuckle + snort).
这是一个很好的方法，把两个想法结合成一个词. You get a lot of these words for new creations in clothing 而且 food, 比如打底裤=牛仔裤+打底裤, 甜甜圈=牛角包+甜甜圈. The new words reflect the creativity that goes into experimenting with new clothing or food.
Portmanteau words have been around for a long time – the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) gives the earliest written evidence of words like brunch (1895) 而且 motel (1925). But let’s have a look at five words we think of as 21st century creations. 它们展示了金沙苹果版下载现在的生活方式.
豪华露营 is ‘glamorous camping’ for people who don’t want to give up their comforts while still enjoying some outdoors experience. But is it really camping if you’re staying in a luxury hideaway with everything provided for you? 豪华野营与想要“宅度假”有关, 或者在离家近的地方度假, 然而，享受一些感觉像是享受的东西.
“分享育儿”是“共享育儿”. 但这意味着什么呢? There are divided opinions on this: is it about parents sharing the responsibility of looking after their children, or parents showing off their children’s achievements on social media? That’s one of the fascinating things about new words: a dominant meaning can take a while to become established.
母鸡胀气与大鸡蛋无关. It’s ‘hen-night inflation’ - the way that hen nights have morphed from being a night out on the town for a bride-to-be 而且 her mates into a luxury (而且 very expensive) weekend away in a far-flung place.
弹性素食者是灵活的素食者. They mostly eat meat-free but perhaps enjoy the occasional burger or bacon sarnie. This could be the way forward for everyone to cut back on meat consumption without the guilt if they have the odd lapse.
帕洛格是金沙苹果版下载名单上的最新词汇. 它是慢跑(jogging)和plocka(瑞典语“挑”的意思)的合成词。. 就是你慢跑捡垃圾的时候. This trend began in Sweden in 2016 而且 quickly spread to other countries. 有什么不喜欢的? You can get fit 而且 enjoy the fresh air, while improving the local environment.
One sign that a new word is here to stay is when it gets entered into a dictionary. 今天的字典是描述性的, 描述人们如何使用语言, 而不是制定规则. The big dictionaries have teams of experts called ‘lexicographers’ who use huge databases of real language in use, “全集”, 追踪单词. A word won’t be entered into the dictionary until there’s plenty of evidence that it’s widely used.
那么，是谁首先创造了新词呢? 作家创造词汇的传统由来已久, 包括格莱姆林(罗尔德·达尔), 网络空间(威廉·吉布森), 自由职业者(沃尔特·斯科特), 眼花缭乱(威廉·莎士比亚). Other words start out as br而且 names 而且 gradually become the everyday word for a particular item, 像透明胶带, 热水瓶, 汽泡纸, 装, 按摩浴缸和魔术贴.
Some words come from the name of the person that invented something or popularized it. 这可能与品牌名称重叠. 当你称圆珠笔为圆珠笔时, 你在说一个品牌的名字, 它本身来自发明者的名字, 匈牙利语László Bíró.
One of the great things about words is that they can start out as jokes among a particular group of people 而且 then take off more widely. Social media is an effective way for words to be shared 而且 spread. “自拍”始于2002年的一个网络论坛, but it was about a decade later that it really took off 而且 then became Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year in 2013. 很难记起自拍到底有多近了.
To make a new word, you can take the initial letters of the words in a phrase to form a new word. Sometimes each letter is sounded out 而且 sometimes it’s pronounced as a new word (called an ‘acronym’), 而最初的话可能会被遗忘. Gif最初是“图形交换格式”, 而且 a phone’s sim card is a ‘subscriber identification module’ card.
新单词和社交 & technological change is one of the fascinating areas we look at on our 英语语言 金沙苹果版下载联合荣誉课程. 遵循 珍妮Lewin-Jones 在推特上 @JennyLewinJones
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